Controlled Vocabulary: Sound Production Method

The classification of sound production mechanisms has been addressed by a number of previous authors. Ewing (1989) devised a categorisation based entirely on the physical mechanism of sound production (percussion, air expulsion, vibration, tymbal mechanisms and stridulation). Most insect sounds can be neatly placed into these categories, with the possible exception of crepitation. Crepitation, a snapping sound made by the wings, may be considered to be a form of tymbalisation, albeit not always under direct muscular control as it may be a by-product of flight. A broad interpretation of tymbalisation would include the crepitation of the Orthoptera. Crepitation is here retained as a separate term, but may in the broadest sense be treated as synonymous with tymbalisation. The air expulsion of Ewing (1989) is here expanded to fluid expulsion, in recognition of the fact many insects are aquatic for at least part of their lives, and while freshwater acoustic studies of insects are presently limited, noise created by the expulsion of water would be analogous with the expulsion of air in terrestrial environments.

Abdomino-femoral Stridulation

https://vocab.audioblast.org/cv/spm#Abdomino-femoralStridulation

en

Broader term

Stridulationen

Alary-abdominal Stridulation

https://vocab.audioblast.org/cv/spm#Alary-abdominalStridulation

en

Broader term

Stridulationen

Coxo-metasternal Stridulation

https://vocab.audioblast.org/cv/spm#Coxo-metasternalStridulation

en

Broader term

Stridulationen

Cranio-prothoracaic Stridulation

https://vocab.audioblast.org/cv/spm#Cranio-prothoracaicStridulation

en

Broader term

Stridulationen

Crepitation

https://vocab.audioblast.org/cv/spm#Crepitation

en

Crepitation is a noise made by the snapping of wings as they extend, sometimes occurring facultatively as part of a special crepitation display flight, otherwise obligate and occurs in all flights.

A second definition is the sharp sound produced by rapid fluid discharge, e.g. in bombardier beetles (Gordh and Headrick 2001), although not for the hissing sound made by hissing cockroaches which is a rapid discharge of air through modified spiracles. Given the etymology comes from the Latin crepito suggesting a crackling sound reserving the definition to the first given seems logical. The second definition is covered in this vocabulary under FluidExpulsion.

Elytro-abdominal Stridulation

https://vocab.audioblast.org/cv/spm#Elytro-abdominalStridulation

en

Broader term

Stridulationen

Elytro-tibial Percussion

https://vocab.audioblast.org/cv/spm#Elytro-tibialPercussion

en

Broader term

Percussionen

Fluid Expulsion

https://vocab.audioblast.org/cv/spm#FluidExpulsion

en

The forced expulsion of air through modified spiracles creates the distinctive hiss in the hissing cockroaches (Blattodea: Blaberidae: Gromphadorhini; Hunsinger et al. 2018). The hawkmoth Acherontia sphinx makes a defensive sound by passing air through the pharynx (Brehm et al. 2015).

Narrower terms

Pharyngeal Air Expulsionen
Spiracular Air Expulsionen

Head-susbsrate Percussion

https://vocab.audioblast.org/cv/spm#Head-susbsratePercussion

en

Broader term

Percussionen

Hindleg-substrate Percussion

https://vocab.audioblast.org/cv/spm#Hindleg-substratePercussion

en

Broader term

Percussionen

Maxillo-mandibular Stridulation

https://vocab.audioblast.org/cv/spm#Maxillo-mandibularStridulation

en

Broader term

Stridulationen

Mesonoto-elytral Stridulation

https://vocab.audioblast.org/cv/spm#Mesonoto-elytralStridulation

en

Broader term

Stridulationen

Mesonoto-pronotal Stridulation

https://vocab.audioblast.org/cv/spm#Mesonoto-pronotalStridulation

en

Broader term

Stridulationen

MesothoracicScutellum-elytral Stridulation

https://vocab.audioblast.org/cv/spm#MesothoracicScutellum-elytralStridulation

en

Broader term

Stridulationen

None

https://vocab.audioblast.org/cv/spm#None

en

Used to positively assert the organism has no deliberate sound production method.

Percussion

https://vocab.audioblast.org/cv/spm#Percussion

en

Percussive noises are generated by the impact between body parts, or between part of the body and the substrate. Ewing (1989) notes that the exoskeleton of arthropods makes percussion an efficient communication method. Moths of the genus Hecatesia have hardened sections of the fore wing called castanets that strike together in flight to produce sound, leading to their common name of 'whistling moths' Bailey (1978).

Narrower terms

Elytro-tibial Percussionen
Head-susbsrate Percussionen
Hindleg-substrate Percussionen

Pronoto-femoral Stridulation

https://vocab.audioblast.org/cv/spm#Pronoto-femoralStridulation

en

Broader term

Stridulationen

Prosterno-mesosternal Stridulation

https://vocab.audioblast.org/cv/spm#Prosterno-mesosternalStridulation

en

Broader term

Stridulationen

Stridulation

https://vocab.audioblast.org/cv/spm#Stridulation

en

Stridulation has evolved multiple times within the insects, and further mechanisms may be discovered.

In some cases distinction needs to be made between which of the two body parts has the file. Following Wessel (2006) the part which has the file (pars stridens) is given first, so there is a distinction made between Abdomino-alary and Alary-abdominal methods.

Narrower terms

Abdomino-alary Stridulationen
Abdomino-elytral Stridulation
Abdomino-femoral Stridulationen
Alary-abdominal Stridulationen
Alary-elytral Stridualtionen
Antennal Stridulationen
Coxo-metasternal Stridulationen
Cranio-prothoracaic Stridulationen
Elyto-femoral Stridulationen
Elytral Stridulationen
Elytro-abdominal Stridulationen
Femoral Stridulationen
Maxillo-mandibular Stridulationen
Mesonoto-elytral Stridulationen
Mesonoto-pronotal Stridulationen
MesothoracicScutellum-elytral Stridulationen
Pronoto-femoral Stridulationen
Prosterno-mesosternal Stridulationen

Tremulation

https://vocab.audioblast.org/cv/spm#Tremulation

en

Vibratory motions are classified into two types. Those where vibration of the body (or part thereof) transmits an acoustic signal through a fluid (air or water) are considered vibrations. Those where vibration is transmitted through a solid substrate, such as vegetation, are termed tremulation.

Narrower terms

Abdominal Tremulationen
Body Tremulationen

Tymbalisation

https://vocab.audioblast.org/cv/spm#Tymbalisation

en

In most cicadas, sound production is primarily through the process of tymbalisation: the de-formation of the paired tymbals at a high rate. In cicadas, the tymbals are modified sections of abdominal tegumen strengthened by ridges that can be deformed by muscles (Pringle 1954).

Vibration

https://vocab.audioblast.org/cv/spm#Vibration

en

Vibratory motions are classified into two types. Those where vibration of the body (or part thereof) transmits an acoustic signal through a fluid (air or water) are considered vibrations. Those where vibration is transmitted through a solid substrate, such as vegetation, are termed tremulation.

Narrower terms

Wing Vibrationen

To cite this website:

Ed Baker (2024) audioBlast Vocabulary Server (https://vocab.audioblast.org/). Accessed on March 2, 2024, 2:52 am.